Calendars in central Java

Most of the events listed here are regular. Some happen weekly, others monthly, and a few annually. A number of important events, such as those celebrating the wetonan/tingalan or 'birthdays' of the rulers, are tied to the Javanese 35-day cycle, which results from combining the familiar seven-day week (minggu or wuku) with the Javanese five-day 'market' (pasaran) week. Days in this 35-day weton cycle are defined by two names (Minggu-Legi, etc.) as shown in the table below. There is no specific starting date in the 35-day cycle: the numbers in the table are given purely for convenience. Some days in the cycle, e.g. Selasa-Kliwon, are of special significance.

Regular musical events are liable to be cancelled during Ramadhan/Puasa (see below), and sometimes around public holidays such as Independence Day (17 August) and New Year's Day. In the palaces, gamelan are not played on Jum'at.

In Indonesia the days are reckoned from sunset. The word malam means 'night'. When put in front of the name of a day, it must be understood as 'eve of': thus malam Selasa is Monday evening.

The weton cycle

 

 

Minggu day

Pasaran day

 

 

 

Minggu day

Pasaran day

  1

Sunday

Minggu

Legi

 

19

Thursday

Kamis

Wagé

  2

Monday

Senin

Paing

 

20

Friday

Jum’at

Kliwon

  3

Tuesday

Selasa

Pon

 

21

Saturday

Sabtu

Legi

  4

Wednesday

Rabu

Wagé

 

22

Sunday

Minggu

Paing

  5

Thursday

Kamis

Kliwon

 

23

Monday

Senin

Pon

  6

Friday

Jum’at

Legi

 

24

Tuesday

Selasa

Wagé

  7

Saturday

Sabtu

Paing

 

25

Wednesday

Rabu

Kliwon

  8

Sunday

Minggu

Pon

 

26

Thursday

Kamis

Legi

  9

Monday

Senin

Wagé

 

27

Friday

Jum’at

Paing

10

Tuesday

Selasa

Kliwon

 

28

Saturday

Sabtu

Pon

11

Wednesday

Rabu

Legi

 

29

Sunday

Minggu

Wagé

12

Thursday

Kamis

Paing

 

30

Monday

Senin

Kliwon

13

Friday

Jum’at

Pon

 

31

Tuesday

Selasa

Legi

14

Saturday

Sabtu

Wagé

 

32

Wednesday

Rabu

Paing

15

Sunday

Minggu

Kliwon

 

33

Thursday

Kamis

Pon

16

Monday

Senin

Legi

 

34

Friday

Jum’at

Wagé

17

Tuesday

Selasa

Paing

 

35

Saturday

Sabtu

Kliwon

18

Wednesday

Rabu

Pon

 

 

 

 

 

Other events are tied to the Javanese or Islamic calendars (which are not identical), the years being given as AJ or AH respectively. These calendars are lunar rather than solar, with 12 months of 29 or 30 days in a year. The length of the year is 354 days, or 355 for a leap year. Therefore dates and events precess back by about 11 days each year in terms of the Gregorian calendar. The full details of how these calendars work are extremely complicated, and even open to some disagreement. Programs for converting dates from one calendar to another will be found, together with other relevant information, at www.anu.edu.au/asianstudies/ahcen/proudfoot/Takwim.html

Months in the Javanese and Islamic calendars

 

Javanese/Islamic names

Days

  1

Surå, Muhar(r)am

30

  2

Sapar, S(y)afar

29; 30 b

  3

Mulud/Maulud/Maulid, Rabi(ng)ul-awal

30; 29 b

  4

Bakdå Mulud, Rabi(ng)ul Tsani, Rabi(ng)ul-ak(h)ir

29

  5

Jumadilawal, Jumadil Ula

30; 29 b

  6

Jumadilak(h)ir, Jumadil Tsaniya

29

  7

Rejeb, Rajab

30

  8

Ru(w)ah, Arwah, S(y)a’ban

29

  9

Pu(w)åså/Påså, Siyam, Ramad(h)an, Ramelan

30

10

Sawal, Syaw(w)al

29

11

Selå, Apit, Dulkangidah, Zulkaedah

30

12

Besar, Dulkijah, Zulhi(j)jah, Dulkaji

29 a; 30 b

a. 30 in leap years.    b. In Dal years from 1675 AJ onwards.

The Javanese New Year is called Satu Surå. The principal annual religious festivals celebrated by the royal courts of Solo and Yogya are:

Date

Javanese/Indonesian name

Arabic name

English description

5–12 Mulud

Sekatèn week

12 Mulud

Garebeg Mulud, Hari Natal, Muludan

Maulud/maulid Nabi Muhammad

Birthday of prophet Muhammad

1–30 Puåså

Puåså

Ramadhan

Fasting month

1–3 Sawal

Lebaran, Hari Raya, Garebeg Puåså, Garebeg Sawal, etc.

Id ul-Fitri

End of fasting

10–13 Dulkijah

Garebeg Besar, Garebeg Haji, Lebaran Haji

Id ul-Adha, Idul-Korban

Feast of Abraham’s sacrifice

Conversions for the Muslim calendar are not included here because they are usually given in diaries/Filofax pages in the West. However, since calendars are interpreted in different ways, the events listed above are not always celebrated on the days that might be expected: discrepancies of one or two days are possible.

 

 

 Home

 Top

 

 Links

 Contact

 Site map